Cell Transplant. 2016;25(6):1193-206. doi: 10.3727/096368915X689442. Epub 2015 Sep 15.
Comparative Efficacies of Long-Term Serial Transplantation of Syngeneic, Allogeneic, Xenogeneic, or CTLA4Ig-Overproducing Xenogeneic Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Murine Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.
1Laboratory Animal Research Center, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Allogeneic and xenogeneic transplantation are suitable alternatives for treating patients with stem cell defects and autoimmune diseases. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of long-term serial transplantation of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) from (NZB × NZW) F1 mice (syngeneic), BALB/c mice (allogeneic), or humans (xenogeneic) on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The effects of transplanting human ASCs overproducing CTLA4Ig (CTLA4Ig-hASC) were also compared. Animals were divided into five experimental groups, according to the transplanted cell type. Approximately 500,000 ASCs were administered intravenously every 2 weeks from 6 to 60 weeks of age to all mice except for the control mice, which received saline. The human ASC groups (hASC and CTLA4Ig-hASC) showed a 13-week increase in average life spans and increased survival rates and decreased blood urea nitrogen, proteinuria, and glomerular IgG deposition. The allogeneic group also showed higher survival rates compared to those of the control, up to 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 52, and 53 weeks of age. Syngeneic ASC transplantation did not accelerate the mortality of the mice. The mean life span of both the syngeneic and allogeneic groups was prolonged for 6-7 weeks. Both human ASC groups displayed increased serum interleukin-10 and interleukin-4 levels, whereas both mouse ASC groups displayed significantly increased GM-CSF and interferon-γ levels in the serum. The strongest humoral immune response was induced by xenogeneic transplantation, followed by allogeneic, CTLA4Ig-xenogeneic, and syngeneic transplantations. Long-term serial transplantation of the ASCs from various sources displayed different patterns of cytokine expression and humoral responses, but all of them increased life spans in an SLE mouse model.
Keywords: (NZB × NZW) F1 mice; Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells; CTLA4Ig; Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Cell Transplant. 2015;24(11):2367-77. doi: 10.3727/096368914X685645. Epub 2014 Dec 12.
Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells induce expansion of interleukin-10-producing regulatory Bcells and ameliorate autoimmunity in a murine model of systemic lupus erythematosus.
1The Rheumatism Research Center, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells characterized by immunomodulatory properties and are therefore considered a promising tool for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. One functional B-cell subset, regulatory B cells (Bregs), has recently been shown to restrain excessive inflammatory responses in autoimmune diseases. In the present study, we investigated the impact of human adipose-derived MSCs on Bregs and their therapeutic effect in an animal model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Coculture of human adipose-derived MSCs with splenocytes from C57BL/6 mice expanded the population of interleukin-10-producing B cells (B10 B cells). In vivo treatment with human adipose-derived MSCs reduced serum anti-double-stranded antibody levels and improved renal pathology of lupus mice (Roquin(san/san) mice). MSCs decreased ICOS(+)CD44(+) follicular helper T cells, Th1 cells and Th17 cells, in spleens of Roquin(san/san) mice. In contrast, MSCs increased Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells. MSCs also decreased the size and number of germinal centers and effector B cells. As expected, in vivo treatment with MSCs expanded the population of Bregs in spleens of Roquin(san/san) mice. Our results indicate that human adipose-derived MSCs induce the expansion of Bregs and ameliorate autoimmunity in a murine model of SLE. These findings suggest that human adipose-derived MSCs may be a promising therapeutic strategy targeting B-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases such as SLE.
Keywords: Follicular helper T cells (Tfh cells); Interleukin (IL)-10; Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs); Regulatory B cells (Bregs); Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Annu Rev Pathol. 2011;6:457-78. doi: 10.1146/annurev-pathol-011110-130230.
Mesenchymal stem cells: mechanisms of inflammation.
1MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44109, USA.
In adults, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are found in vivo at low frequency and are defined by their capacity to differentiate into bone, cartilage, and adipose tissue, depending on the stimuli and culture conditions under which they are expanded. Although MSCs were initially hypothesized to be the panacea for regenerating tissues, MSCs appear to be more important in therapeutics to regulate the immune response invoked in settings such as tissue injury, transplantation, and autoimmunity. MSCs have been used therapeutically in clinical trials and subsequently in practice to treat graft-versus-host disease following bone marrow transplantation. Reports of successful immune modulation suggest efficacy in a wide range of autoimmune conditions, such as demyelinating neurological disease (multiple sclerosis), systemic lupus erythematosus, and Crohn’s disease, among others. This review provides background information about hMSCs and also describes their putative mechanisms of action in inflammation. We provide a summary of ongoing clinical trials to allow (a) full comprehension of the range of diseases in which hMSC therapy may be beneficial and (b) identification of gaps in our knowledge about the mechanisms of action of therapeutic MSCs in disease.