Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2015 Jul-Aug;33(4 Suppl 92):S58-62. Epub 2015 Oct 12.
Human mesenchymal stem cells as a tool for joint repair in rheumatoid arthritis.
1The First Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterised with chronic inflammatory synovitis and progressive joint. Because damaged and/or deformed joints cannot be repaired, a novel treatment strategy aimed at both anti-inflammation and bone regeneration is a prerequisite. Mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) can be easily isolated from various organs and possess multipotent capacity and exhibit immunoregulatory properties. Using human MSC derived from bone marrow and adipose tissue, we have clarified the following novel findings in vitro. 1) MSCs differentiated into osteoblasts or osteocytes under osteoblast-conditioned medium including the inflammatory stimuli such as IL-1. 2) The combination of IL-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor induced differentiation of MSCs to chondrocyte. 3) MSCs produced osteoprotegerin and inhibited osteoclastogenesis. Furthermore, we developed a local delivery system of MSCs by using nano-fibre scaffold. MSCs seeded on nano-fibre scaffold suppressed arthritis and joint destruction by inhibiting systemic inflammatory reaction and immune response through the induction of regulatory T cells and subsequent reduction in the production of anti-type II collagen antibody in vivo. Thus, our data may serve as a new strategy for MSC-based therapy in inflammatory diseases and an alternative delivery method for the treatment of damaged joints in RA.
Immunosuppressive properties of mesenchymal stem cells: advances and applications.
1Cell Engineering Laboratory, IdiPaz, La Paz Hospital Research Institute, Madrid, Spain.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated from a variety of tissues, such as bone marrow, skeletal muscle, dental pulp, bone, umbilical cord and adipose tissue. MSCs are used in regenerative medicine mainly based on their capacity to differentiate into specific cell types and also as bioreactors of soluble factors that will promote tissue regeneration from the damaged tissue cellular progenitors. In addition to these regenerative properties, MSCs hold an immunoregulatory capacity, and elicit immunosuppressive effects in a number of situations. Not only are they immunoprivileged cells, due to the low expression of class II Major Histocompatibilty Complex (MHC-II) and costimulatory molecules in their cell surface, but they also interfere with different pathways of the immune response by means of direct cell-to-cell interactions and soluble factor secretion. In vitro, MSCs inhibit cell proliferation of T cells, B-cells, natural killer cells (NK) and dendritic cells (DC), producing what is known as division arrest anergy. Moreover, MSCs can stop a variety of immune cell functions: cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity of T and NK cells; B cell maturation and antibody secretion; DC maturation and activation; as well as antigen presentation. It is thought that MSCs need to be activated to exert their immunomodulation skills. In this scenario, an inflammatory environment seems to be necessary to promote their effect and some inflammation-related molecules such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ might be implicated. It has been observed that MSCs recruit T-regulatory lymphocytes (Tregs) to both lymphoid organs and graft. There is great controversy concerning the mechanisms and molecules involved in the immunosuppressive effect of MSCs. Prostaglandin E2, transforming growth factor-β, interleukins- 6 and 10, human leukocyte antigen-G5, matrix metalloproteinases, indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase and nitric oxide are all candidates under investigation. In vivo studies have shown many discrepancies regarding the immunomodulatory properties of MSCs. These studies have been designed to test the efficacy of MSC therapy in two different immune settings: the prevention or treatment of allograft rejection episodes, and the ability to suppress abnormal immune response in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Preclinical studies have been conducted in rodents, rabbits and baboon monkeys among others for bone marrow, skin, heart, and corneal transplantation, graft versus host disease, hepatic and renal failure, lung injury, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes and lupus diseases. Preliminary results from some of these studies have led to human clinical trials that are currently being carried out. These include treatment of autoimmune diseases such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes mellitus; prevention of allograft rejection and enhancement of the survival of bone marrow and kidney grafts; and treatment of resistant graft versus host disease. We will try to shed light on all these studies, and analyze why the results are so contradictory.
Keywords: Autoimmune disease, cell therapy, graft enhancement, graft rejection, graft versus host disease, immune system, immunomodulation, mesenchymal stem cells
Arch Pharm Res. 2012 Feb;35(2):213-21. doi: 10.1007/s12272-012-0202-z. Epub 2012 Feb 28.
Immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells and their therapeutic applications.
1Clinical Research Center, Inha Research Institute, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon 400-712, Korea.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells that can be isolated from most adult tissues, including bone marrow, adipose, liver, amniotic fluid, lung, skeletal muscle and kidney. The term MSC is currently being used to represent both mesenchymal stem cells and multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. Numerous reports on systemic administration of MSCs leading to functional improvements based on the paradigm of engraftment and differentiation have been published. However, it is not only difficult to demonstrate extensive engraftment of cells, but also no convincing clinical results have been generated from phase 3 trials as of yet and prolonged responses to therapy have been noted after identification of MSCs had discontinued. It is now clear that there is another mechanism by which MSCs exert their reparative benefits. Recently, MSCs have been shown to possess immunomodulatory properties. These include suppression of T cell proliferation, influencing dendritic cell maturation and function, suppression of B cell proliferation and terminal differentiation, and immune modulation of other immune cellssuch as NK cells and macrophages. In terms of the clinical applications of MSCs, they are being tested in four main areas: tissue regeneration for cartilage, bone, muscle, tendon and neuronal cells; as cell vehicles for gene therapy; enhancement of hematopoietic stem cell engraftment; and treatment of immune diseases such as graft-versus-host disease, rheumatoid arthritis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, sepsis, acute pancreatitis and multiple sclerosis. In this review, the mechanisms of immunomodulatory effects of MSCs and examples of animal and clinical uses of their immunomodulatory effects are described.
Keywords: Mesenchymal stem cell, Immunomodulation, Clinical application, Allogeneic stem cell, Therapeutic product, Immune disease